Tungsten headquartered in UAE has officially launched the first home grown and regulated crypto custodian after receiving a license from UAE’s Financial Services Regulatory Authority (FSRA) to operate at the Abu Dhabi Global Market (ADGM). The platform is designed to store digital assets securely for institutional investors.

Over 12 months to July 2023, the value of digital assets received by the UAE was over US$34.9 billion (Chainalysis). Approximately 67%, or around US$23 billion in transactions, was carried out by institutional investors, demonstrating a significant opportunity for specialist digital assets custody.

As a regulated custodian, Tungsten aims to provide peace of mind for institutions investing in digital assets, including cryptocurrency. 

Arvind Ramamurthy, Chief of Market Development at ADGM said, “We congratulate and welcome Tungsten to Abu Dhabi’s international financial centre, ADGM. As much as the ever-evolving digital asset space needs regulatory controls to protect investors, it also needs risk management services that enable them to understand and invest securely. The concept of Tungsten revolves around this and allows it to harness the opportunities within this industry. As custodian of virtual assets, Tungsten’s offerings, coupled with ADGM’s vibrant ecosystem and progressive regulations for digital assets, will empower investors and maintain market integrity with robust solutions.”

Chris Desjardins, Tungsten Founder and Senior Executive Officer said: Digital assets present unprecedented opportunities across generations, yet the cornerstone of realising their potential lies in establishing a trusted investment environment. The UAE is at the forefront of this transformation, crafting a robust framework for digital assets that not only sets a global benchmark but also positions it as a pioneering force in the finance sector of tomorrow. Our immense pride stems from being developed and regulated within the UAE, a testament to our commitment to excellence and innovation in this dynamic landscape.”

Tungsten provides secure, regulated crypto custody so clients can confidently invest in digital assets. It is led by Chris Desjardins, an industry veteran with deep knowledge and experience in building and growing digital assets and cryptocurrency solutions. Previously, he co-founded Big Index, a Canadian institutional crypto wallet technology provider successfully acquired by Brane Inc., where he became Head of Product. Through his leadership, Tungsten sets an unparalleled benchmark for digital asset custody.

Tungsten is independent and segregated from other digital asset services, such as the trading of crypto assets, focusing purely on safeguarding clients’ digital assets. The business ensures secure online and offline procedures, including bank-grade physical vaults, enterprise-grade wallet management and world-class network hardware. Additionally, clients benefit from strong governance and high insurance coverage, providing utmost reassurance to institutional investors.

Over 2024, Tungsten, the UAE homegrown crypto custodian will scale customer acquisition, catering to a growing demand from regional institutional investors, family offices, asset managers, and high-net-worth individuals (HNWIs).

Tungsten had previously started hiring for key positions and as per their press release will continue to.

UAE organically incubated, digital assets custodian, Tungsten, regulated under the FSRA (Financial Services Regulatory Authority) in ADGM is on a hiring spree.

Tungsten, according to Further Ventures, UAE Venture Capital firm, and its incubator, is a 100% UAE sovereign digital asset custodian that offers secure and regulated custody service.  It is also backed by an Abu Dhabi Sovereign Wealth fund.

As per Tungsten, “ We are on a mission to create the most advanced digital assets custody and treasury services for our clients, helping them to become self-sovereign organizations with strong mechanisms for access control, multi-tier and multi-factor authentication, no single points of failure, and advanced transactional risk management.”

Tungsten goes on to note, “Our offering will be insured by global underwriters, regulated exclusively by ADGM (Abu Dhabi Global Markets), and host its core services in a Tier IV data center with 24/7 physical security.”

Tungsten is custodian of virtual assets that protects client funds from geo-political, regulatory, and cloud risk by operating a fully private physical and application infrastructure out of the most secure facilities in the world.

The website states that Tungsten goes beyond custody, their integrations span exchanges, liquidity providers, analytics, tokenization, and more, providing a holistic solution.

The company is founded by Christian Desjardins, Co-Founder and CEO , as well as Jose J. Perez Aguinaga as the Co-Founder and CTO.

Tungsten is currently hiring an assistant Manager-Deputy MLRO.

In the advert for the position it states that Tungsten, backed by an Abu Dhabi Sovereign Wealth Fund has expansion plans across the Middle East and Eastern Europe.

The job advert notes, “We aim to redefine the landscape of secure, user-friendly virtual asset custody solutions. Our commitment is to unparalleled security, reliability, and ease of use, positioning Tungsten as the preferred choice for institutions managing their virtual assets.”

Tungsten is looking for Assistant Manager – Deputy MLRO, to support the Money Laundering Reporting Officer (MLRO) in implementing and managing their anti-money laundering (AML) and counter-terrorist financing (CTF) framework.

This comes as more and more Blockchain and digital asset entities launch from ADGM in UAE.

This article was updated on Feb 27th 2024. Update concerned founding members.

UAE based HAYVN which is a digital asset focused financial institution, providing trading, asset Management, custody, and payments previously regulated and active in Abu Dhabi, has fallen under a great wall of scrutiny and a black cloud both with regards of the activities of its previous CEO as well its current status as a regulated entity in the UAE.

In less than a week, Hayvn not only announced the so called resignation of its CEO Christopher Flinos and the request to make its status inactive in Abu Dhabi ADGM ( Abu Dhabi Global Market), but it also insinuated that the CEO had carried out a huge misconduct. In an email statement made by the PR agency of Hayvn, Fully Vested, to UNLOCK Blockchain, the agency noted, “The CEO stepped down from the management of the business, following a request from the Board of Directors due to the CEO’s conduct.”

Sources close to LaraontheBlock have noted that there has been speculation moving around with regards to possible embezzlement. This is further reconfirmed by the fact that Christopher Flinos is nowhere to be found. His phone is off, he does not respond to LinkedIn or other messages, and he himself has not made any statement to clear his name or explain his actions and that of the board of Hayvn.

LaraontheBlock reached out to the FSRA (Financial Services and Regulatory Authority) at ADGM with two questions. The first question, as a regulatory authority what actions have or will be taken towards Hayvn given the current cloud of speculation around it and the activities of its prior CEO?

The second question, can ADGM confirm that institutional clients in the UAE have not been effected financially or otherwise from the actions taken by the prior CEO and Hayvn as a crypto custodian and if effected will there be restitution?

The response which came from FSRA attributed to Mr. Emmanuel Givanakis. CEO of the Financial Services Regulatory Authority at ADGM stated, “As the financial regulator of ADGM, the Financial Services Regulatory Authority (FSRA) is bound by the highest levels of confidentiality and therefore is not positioned to discuss individual firms. The FSRA is committed to supervising all regulated entities so they maintain high standards to address risks related to their activities. ADGM stands as a transparent jurisdiction and has relevant public information on registered and licensed entities by its independent regulatory authorities in ADGM available on the public register.”

As per its license, AC Limited (Hayvn) is not permitted to deal with Retail Clients and is restricted to USD 1 million in total assets (Fiat and Accepted Virtual Assets) for a maximum of 100 clients.

When the same questions were posed to Ahmed W Ismail Co-Founder, Board Member & Operating Committee Member of HAYVN, he replied with this statement, “I can confirm that there has been a change of management at HAYVN. The CEO stepped down from the management of the business, following a request from the Board of Directors. Client funds are safe and there will be no disruption to the service of any clients. We continue to be a globally regulated business through our entities in Australia, Cayman and Lithuania.”

Hayvn was granted a license in ADGM in December 2021, allowing it to offer deals for investments, and virtual asset custody. In October 2023 Hayvn announced that had processed over 22 000 cryptocurrency transactions to date in 2023.

While back in August 2023 Swedish and UAE based Gayo aviation, a luxury travel company that offers aircraft management, consulting services, aircraft purchase and sales and flight deck services announced they were now offering crypto payments utilizing UAE HAYVN Pay.

In May Hayvn also announced that it had recorded returns of 19 percent increase on its crypto index fund since its launch in January 2023. The index fund  included the top 20 digital assets by market capitalization with a maximum weighting of 10% for any asset to increase diversification. It is a broad based index strategy with monthly rebalancing.

In short Hayvn was busy partnering and launching products.  It partnered with WooCommernce to offer a plug-in allowing merchants to create an additional revenue stream by accepting cryptocurrency payments from customers globally. It also partnered with crypto hardware manufacturer, Ledger to provide safe and robust off-ramping rails to users of Ledger’s Ledger Live service, as well as strategic partnership with Akurateco, a cutting-edge white-label payment software vendor operating worldwide to broaden crypto payments, and finally the most recent partnership with Malta based Apcopay, a Single Layer – Payments Orchestration Platform which they noted was crucial to HAYVN Pay’s global expansion strategy, providing an alternative payment avenue for businesses.

This flurry of activity while to many looks like reflections of growth and expansion could also have been a cover up for activities that led to the current situation Hayvn is in today.

Could the rushed technology upgrade implemented just before Flinos’s resignation which created widespread disruptions for Hayvn Pay Clients been part and one of the issues realted to the misconduct of the CEO?

These questions and many more should become clearer as the Abu Dhabi Global Market regulator investigates, and as Hayvn’s new leadership takes form.

Regulatory arm of Financial Free zone ADGM tells registered companies in ADGM that they have to adhere to the AML ( Anti money laundering) TFS ( targeted Financial sanctions) legislations and policies of the UAE Federal government. What this means is that even if companies have registered in ADGM as offshore or freezone entities they will still be legally bound to the UAE AML/TFS legislations which also include virtual assets.

The FSRA announced these  revisions that clarify the requirements that previously appeared in the AML Rulebook, reflecting the federal regulatory framework the UAE has put in place to combat money-laundering, the financing of terrorism and proliferation financing and ensure compliance with targeted financial sanctions. In particular, minor drafting changes have been made to the provisions relating to wire transfers in order to provide greater clarity that the FATF “Travel Rule” applies to Virtual Assets.

The revisions will be relevant to all firms subject to the provisions in the AML Rulebook, including authorized firms in the financial services sector and Designated Non-Financial Businesses and Professions.

The amended AML Rulebook, as per FSRA ( Financial Services and Regulatory Authority) of ADGM asserts that “ The AML Rulebook is made in recognition of the application of the Federal AML Legislation in the Abu Dhabi Global Market (“ADGM”) of the Federal AML Legislation. Nothing in the AML Rulebook affects the operation of Federal AML Legislation.”

A Relevant Person’s Governing Body is responsible for establishing, maintaining and monitoring the Relevant Person’s AML/TFS policies, procedures, systems and controls and compliance with applicable AML legislationthe AML Rulebook, the Financial Services and Markets Regulations 2015 (“FSMR”), and all applicable Federal AML Legislation.

The FSRA in its amended rule book clearly states, “ Federal AML Legislation applies in the ADGM.”

According to FSRA,  the definition of Federal AML Legislation is broad. It includes all federal legislation as may be in force relating to money laundering, terrorist financing, proliferation financing, the financing of unlawful organizations and sanctions compliance including Targeted Financial Sanctions. Particular pieces of legislation to be aware of include:

(a) Federal Law No. (7) of 2014 regarding Combatting Terrorism Offences;

(b) Federal Decree Law No. (20) of 2018 on Anti-Money Laundering, Combatting the Financing of Terrorism and Financing of Illegal Organisations;

Cabinet Decision No. (10) of 2019 concerning the Implementing Regulation of Decree Law No. (20) of 2018;

(d) Cabinet Decision No. (74) of 2020 concerning the Terrorism Lists Regulation and Implementation of UN Security Council Resolutions on the Suppression and Combatting of Terrorism, Terrorist Financing, Countering the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and its Financing and Relevant Resolutions.

In addition FSRA has made it clear that it will hold the governing body and senior management of a registered entity as responsible for compliance with AML rulebook.

FSRA adds, that the Regulator expects the RBA (Risk Based Approach) to determine the breadth and depth of the Customer Due Diligence (“CDD”).

The same regulations apply when it comes to Sanctions. These UNSC obligations Targeted Financial Sanctions (“TFS”) are Sanctions issued by the UNSC or the U.A.E. involving asset freezing and other financial prohibitions targeted at individuals, entities or groups with the aim of combatting terrorism and terrorist financing, and countering the proliferation of WMD.

This also applies for FATF.

The Dubai Virtual asset regulatory authority public register continues to have UAE based BitOasis, crypto exchange on a “non operational” MVP Operational license status after a server glitch which had removed BitOasis from the registry for sometime totally today. This comes after months of BitOasis being on an inactive status, yet within Abu Dhabi’s regulatory body ADGM and FSRA BitOasis has a withdrawn its license application.

BitOasis has been working since July 2023 to fulfill select conditions associated with its Operational MVP License with respect to serving Institutional and Qualified Retail Investors, yet it seems that this is still ongoing with no change in its status to date.

BitOasis license in ADGM Abu Dhabi UAE, under the registered company name BLEX Financial limited has been withdrawn as well. In 2021 BitOasis had announced in a press release that its ADGM registered entity “had been granted a Financial Services Permission (FSP) from the Financial Services Regulatory Authority (FSRA) in the Abu Dhabi Global Market (ADGM) and is currently working towards the migration of its operations towards launch in ADGM”, this seems to have been put to a halt.

In August, the Dubai based crypto exchange received a capital injection aimed at supporting BitOasis. The capital injection came from Indian crypto exchange CoinDCX. At the time, Ola Doudin, Co-Founder and CEO of BitOasis said: “We are delighted to be working with CoinDCX, India’s leading crypto platform. The investment will allow us to sharpen our focus on perfecting our existing products and expanding across our markets. We are very excited about the opportunities the funding will unlock for us.”

At the time of investment, BitOasis was undertaking mass layoffs.

Yet CoinDCX has not sought for a license in either ADGM or VARA.

Given that BitOasis is not licensed in ADGM and its license status is non active in Dubai’s VARA registry, does that make it an illegal VASP operating in the UAE, this is especially important after the Central Bank issued its recent guidance for combating the use of unlicensed virtual asset service providers.

As per BitOasis blog, in March 2022, BitOasis received a provisional approval from Dubai’s Virtual Assets Regulatory Authority [VARA] to continue its business operations in Dubai whilst it undertakes the [in-depth] process of applying for a license in accordance with the VARA requirements. It is on this basis that the exchange is still operating today notes BitOasis.

This article has been updated as VARA website has reinstated BitOasis on their registery.

Paxos,, a regulated blockchain & tokenization infrastructure platform has secured the in-principle approvals (IPAs) of the Financial Services Regulatory Authority (FSRA) in the Abu Dhabi Global Market (ADGM) for the necessary Financial Services Permissions to issue US dollar and other currency-backed stablecoins, as well as to offer crypto-brokerage and custody services from two regulated ADGM entities. Upon receiving full approval, Paxos will continue to expand the global footprint of their regulated USD-backed stablecoins.

Stablecoins issued with prudential oversight from established and reputable regulators represent a significant step towards democratizing access to commerce and financial services. Paxos is committed to integrity and transparency in its operations and the company will only issue tokens that are subject to oversight by prudential regulators. By also securing oversight for its custody and digital asset infrastructure solutions, Paxos services that are provided out of the ADGM will be comprehensively regulated by the FSRA.

As per the press release,this milestone solidifies Paxos’ position as the most comprehensively regulated blockchain platform in the world, meeting the highest operating standards in New York, Singapore and the ADGM.

Walter Hessert, Paxos Head of Strategy, commented, “Blockchain technology is revolutionizing the global financial system to be more open, secure and innovative. Today’s announcement marks yet another milestone in Paxos’ ability to provide billions of users with safe and trusted digital asset services. Our IPAs from the FSRA, on the heels of our IPA from the Monetary Authority of Singapore, solidify our commitment to pursuing international growth through regulated frameworks. Paxos is unique in the industry for this approach and we will continue expanding our regulatory licensing to serve global enterprises as a trusted, innovative partner.”

By leveraging blockchain technology, Paxos aims to open the financial system to everyone, creating more access and freedom for billions of people around the world. As Paxos continues to lead the way in digital asset innovation, the company remains committed to its mission of building a more inclusive and accessible financial future.

In a press release, Indian based digital asset custodian and wallet, Liminal has been granted an In Principle Approval by Abu Dhabi’s Financial Services Regulatory Authority (FSRA) of Abu Dhabi Global Market (ADGM) to operate as a custody provider for Virtual Assets.

Liminal is working diligently to fulfill all the IPA conditions and meet FSRA’s stringent requirements to receive the Financial Services Permission (FSP).

As per Liminal, receiving the FSP from the FSRA will empower Liminal in extending its services as a trusted and reliable custodian for Virtual Assets within the ADGM jurisdiction and serve the broader MENA region. Liminal also recently launched its compliance solutions suite, with Notabene’s Travel Rule solution.

Earlier this year, in May, Liminal achieved another milestone by obtaining the TCSP License from the Hong Kong Companies Registry, enabling regulated digital asset custodial services in Hong Kong.

When Liminal secures the FSP from the FSRA, it will play a vital role in the Web3 ecosystem in the UAE, expanding its product and service offerings for the MENA region. Liminal will offer institutions a comprehensive suite of services designed to safeguard their virtual assets effectively.

Manan Vora, Senior VP of Strategy & Business Operations at Liminal, expressed enthusiasm about the IPA, stating, “ADGM has established itself as a thriving hub for innovation, growth, and maturation of the Web3 ecosystem. Their dedication to formulating clear and comprehensive regulations has created a trusted and secure environment for investors and Web3 enterprises. Recognizing the escalating demand for secure custody services in the MENA region, we took this strategic step to cater to the industry’s evolving needs. The IPA marks a significant leap forward in our mission to provide institutional-grade custody services for the digital asset industry. We are genuinely thrilled to contribute to the growth of this emerging market. After setting up an entity in Abu Dhabi, our next step is to obtain the FSP, and work closely with the ADGM team to provide regulated custody operations.”

Arvind Ramamurthy, Chief of Market Development at ADGM said, “We extend our congratulations to Liminal on being granted the IPA from the FSRA of ADGM, which paves the way for them to become fully operational in ADGM as a premier custody provider for virtual assets. As an international financial center of the UAE’s capital, ADGM’s vision for fostering a dynamic and trusted financial ecosystem prioritizes upholding the highest standards of security, innovation, and regulatory compliance. Liminal’s capabilities and dedication align seamlessly with ADGM’s goals and reinforce our commitment to driving the growth of the digital asset space in Abu Dhabi and beyond. We anticipate witnessing Liminal’s positive impact on the market and its contribution to the advancement of virtual asset services.”

Jehanzeb Awan, Founder & CEO, J. Awan & Partners, praised Liminal’s commitment and said, “It’s truly impressive to witness Liminal’s dedication to regulatory compliance and their unwavering service to the digital asset industry. Our joint efforts in undergoing stringent screening procedures and audits have culminated in a significant milestone with the issuance of the IPA. I am confident that Liminal will continue to set new standards in the virtual asset custody space, while fostering innovation in ADGM’s rapidly emerging market.”

In its commitment to delivering regulated and compliant custody solutions in the Middle East, Liminal is pleased to welcome Dr. Bhaskar Dasgupta, Veteran Business Strategist, to Its Board in Abu Dhabi. Dr. Dasgupta is highly regarded for his contributions to ADGM, and has been instrumental in revolutionizing cryptocurrency regulation on a global scale. In the past, he has also held distinguished positions as the Chief Operating Officer of UK Export Finance and held leadership positions at esteemed financial institutions, including HSBC, ABN AMRO, Citigroup, and PwC.

According to a recent blog post published by CoinBase the second biggest global crypto currency exchange, the company revealed that is in talks with UAE’s regulator in Abu Dhabi, FSRA ( Financial Service Regulatory Authority)  part of ADGM (Abu Dhabi Global Market) to expand its regulated operations to the UAE.

The expansion is part of its global scale to go broad and deep. As part of its strategy, Coinbase will establish regulated entities and local operations in high-bar regulatory jurisdictions abroad to focus on international growth.

As per the blog post, “Coinbase is focused on international growth and is working with several high-bar international regulators to establish regulated entities abroad that safely facilitate trading solutions and provide products the crypto community demands. Coinbase will continue to launch foundational products that are a gateway to Web3 and crypto across the globe while launching localized infrastructure and public facing products with a full suite of services.”

The post adds, “We have accelerated our UAE plans with Abu Dhabi Global market regulator. We are in discussion with the Financial Services Regulatory Authority (FSRA) in Abu Dhabi Global Market (ADGM) regarding a potential license for a regulated exchange. ADGM is a renowned international financial services center. ADGM is known for having a well-regarded, comprehensive regulatory framework and is committed to operating a fair and efficient regulatory environment for global market participants. ADGM has developed and supported the regulation and trading of cryptocurrencies and Coinbase intends to help further their vision. “

This comes as Binance seeks to receive a regulated license from both ADGM and Dubai’s Virtual asset regulator. While others such as Kraken has closed its operations in UAE. 

Capex.com, which already holds a brokerage license in Abu Dhabi’s ADGM FSRA has now been granted an in principle approval for a cryptocurrency license from Abu Dhabi Global Markets.

CAPAX.com’s Founder and CEO, Octavian Pătrașcu, revealed that the new license will strengthen the brokerage platform’s cryptocurrency offerings in the lucrative Middle East and the North Africa (MENA) region. He stated on LinkedIN, “We are happy that we can start this new vertical under Capex.com and become closer to our main goal of offering a powerhouse of trading for our users, under one roof.”

Crypto approval came in addition to the broker’s existing license from the ADGM Financial Services Regulatory Authority (FSRA), gained in 2020, with which it offers traditional trading instruments.

Capex platform’s offerings are primarily trading services with forex and contracts for differences (CFDs) instruments of other popular asset classes. The platform quickly added crypto products as well, with the rising popularity of the asset class. It even expanded its cryptocurrency portfolio over the years, adding more assets.

The brokerage brand also strengthened its presence in the MENA region with several prominent hirings. Earlier this year, it added Fadi Reyad as a Market Analyst specific for the MENA region and Abdelhadi Laabi as MENA Chief Marketing Officer.

UAE ADGM ( Abu Dhabi Global Market) announced on LinkedIn that Venom Blockchain has become the first ADGM licensed crypto foundation to build a scalable blockchain platform. ADGM also stated, “Venom is on its way to developing an NFT marketplace, derivative exchange and fiat-backed stablecoin”

The statement adds that Venom Foundation is set to become one of the most anticipated blockchain phenomena, enriching the ADGM community and the nation as a whole!

As per the news Venom Foundation perpetually works on providing an abundant bundle of scalable blockchain-powered products and services for the wider financial community. Through robust security measures and a rich database, Venom Foundation has produced an array of self-sufficient tools, including ewallets, decentralised exchanges and more.

The statement then adds, “Subject to the relevant regulatory approvals, Venom Foundation will work with ecosystem participants to ensure that such products are offered in a compliant manner within the trusted and well-regulated environment of ADGM.”

ADGM’s UAE virtual asset regulator in Abu Dhabi,  FSRA (Financial Services Regulatory Authority) of ADGM ( Abu Dhabi Global Market) had recently announced enhancements on its capital markets framework, allowing for the trading of NFTs  (Non Fungible tokens) on virtual asset regulated platforms, This means that MTFs/Custodians (Multilateral trading Facilities) operating within ADGM are now able to seek approval from the FSRA to engage in Non-Fungible Token (NFT) activities.

It would seem that Venom is the first fruit of this new framework.

Prior to the announcement Venom Foundation released their press release, where they stated that, “Venom Foundation has been registered as the first crypto foundation in the ADGM, with a license to operate a blockchain and issue utility tokens. ADGM is well known as a fintech oasis for investors and financial services firms in the region and from around the globe. The next essential step of Venom Blockchain – its launch – will be announced soon.”

Venom blockchain is an asynchronous blockchain technology of dynamical sharding, that has made a leap in blockchain technology development globally, bringing to the market boundless scalability, and higher security guarantees with decentralization.

Venom Foundation has  three core directions, such as Essential Infrastructure, Support of Inbound Projects, Developer-friendly Platform, each to offer novel solutions for solving earlier existing issues in the crypto market.

As per Venom news,  the most valuable feature for the MENA region market is the technology that enables major corporations and companies to conduct an easy and secure transition into Web3 globalization, managing the gross data transaction flows without faltering by increasing fees and transaction times.

Venom Foundation’s main priority is to develop and support a self-sufficient blockchain ecosystem and it has already yielded significant results: non-custodial Wallet (VenomWallet mobile application and Desktop Browser Extension) with a Multisig accounts option and Ledger support, VenomScan (to keep everything transparent with access to transactions history), VenomBridge (allowing the interchain transactions to be made fast, while low price), VenomPools (to stake on Validator nodes), VenomGet (an easy gateway to Venom tokens), Web3.World (native decentralized exchange) has been built.

Venom also mentioned that individual developers, companies, and government authorities will be able to engage Venom Foundation to establish new products such as NFT marketplace, Derivative Exchange, fiat-backed stablecoin, and many others to come with the potential to become a bridge toward wide adoption of CBDC in the UAE, other MENA countries and globally.